Rotating Electrical Machines

Electromagnetism is a highly complex phenomenon which can be observed by solving Maxwell equations. These equations are governed by Gauss Law, Faraday’s laws of induction & Ampere’s law.

Electromagnetic Simulation is technique of solving Magnetic, Electric Fields & Forces acting on Rotating Electrical Machines using finite element approach.

Design Challenges for Rotating Electrical Machines

  • Reducing different types of losses like Hysteresis loss, Core loss, Solid loss, Stranded loss
  • Increase efficiency
  • Achieving higher torque for a specified speed
  • Reducing size & quantity of material
  • Choosing right materials for construction
  • Performing a complete system simulation with electrical, magnetic, mechanical forces
  • Designing a machine with optimum air gap for best possible performance

Types of Simulations for Rotating Electrical Machines

2D/3D Finite Element Analysis

  • Steady State
  • Transient Solver (time domain)

Electrical analysis with coupled mechanical components

  • Complicated electrical control or mechanical parts


Coupled thermal and stress analysis

  • Temperature rise & mechanical stress

Design optimization

  • For shape, position and current for a desired force
  • For design alternatives with parametric variables

Few Important Observations which can be obtained from Electromagnetic Simulation


  • Force
  • Inductances
  • Magnetic Flux Density
  • Flux Lines
  • Efficiency
  • Core & Frictional Losses
  • Temperatures
  • Current Vector
  • Energy Fields & Vectors


  • Torque V/S time characteristics
  • Current V/S Time
  • Speed V/S Time
  • Induced Voltages V/S Time
  • Flux Linkages V/S Time

Magnetic Flux Density Distribution


Advantages of Simulation for Rotating Electrical Machines:

  • Get product insights before physical prototypes are manufactured
  • Pin-point product flaws early in development phase
  • Forecast effects of Design Change on product performance
  • Get product insights before physical prototypes are manufactured
  • Perform Virtual Testing for extreme conditions
  • Optimize product performance